Pomeranian Breed Caring and Family, Social Life, Physical Traits, Diet Info

Pomeranian Breed Caring and Family, Social Life, Physical Traits, Diet Info

Pomeranians have their roots in Norway, Poland and Germany, and they are often called Poms for short. Part of the Pomeranian’s popularity is their curious and intelligent personality. Although they love to play with their owners, they are pretty jealous and may struggle to share the attention they receive with other dogs and people. 

They have a territorial nature, and this possessiveness can leave them aggressive when eating. These tendencies are further amplified with the teacup, or micro-sized Pomeranians, needing to prove their big personalities.

Originally made famous by Queen Victoria, the Pomeranian is a confident, energetic breed that hasn’t forgotten its royal roots. While originally a larger dog, descendants of Spitz-type dogs, the smaller size of the Pomeranian doesn’t dampen a big personality. Poms are confident and playful, with no shortage of boldness. The Pomeranian needs a firm owner who is willing to enforce the rules.

Dwarf Spitzes are part of the toy group of dog breeds, with an average weight of only 5 pounds and typically no taller than 12 inches. They have two to five puppies per litter after about 60 days of pregnancy, and their lifespan is 12 to 16 years. They are known by many names, including Pom, Dwarf Spitz, Deutsche Spitze, Zwergspitz, Spitz Nain, Spitz Enano, Zwers, and Pom Pom.

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What are the Breed Traits and Characteristics of Pomeranians?

The foxy-faced dog, nicknamed “the little dog who thinks he can,” is compact, active, and equally capable of competing in agility and obedience activities or simply being a family Pom. Cute, furry and feisty, Dwarf Spitzes are smart and loyal to their families. Don’t be fooled by their cuteness; they are independent and bold and have minds of their own. They are alert and curious about the world around them, and in their minds, they are much larger than they are, which can sometimes lead them to harass and even attack much larger dogs.

Dwarf Spitzes are known for their loving demeanors. However, when it comes to children, they are not comfortable with young kids who have not yet learned how to interact and respect a dog. They won’t appreciate unsolicited hugs, and they don’t like to stay in someone’s lap unless they decide to do. They especially don’t love being hit, chased, or cornered, resulting in growling or snapping.

While they make for good apartment pets, they can also bark a lot, which your neighbors may not be too thrilled about. But as long as you give your dog plenty of exercise and playtime, keep them out of hot weather, and give them lots of love and attention, you’ll have a loving, adorable, furry family companion.

 More of the Pom breed’s traits and characteristics are listed in the table below.

Pomeranian Dog Breed Features

Pomeranian Dog Breed information

Height – Males and Females

7 to 12 inches 

Weight – Males and Females

3 to 7 pounds

Relation with family

Energetic, curious, feisty, stubborn, intelligent.

Relation with children

High – older children

Low – young children

Relation with other dogs

Good, often too brave

Shedding level

Low except during shedding seasons

Drooling level


Coat type 

Double coat

Coat length

Inner coat: Dense, short and fine

Outer coat: About 2 “ long and coarse

Coat grooming frequency

Daily Brushing and monthly professional grooming

Relation with strangers


Playfulness level


Adaptability level


Openness to strangers


Trainability level

High – but stubborn

Energy level


Barking level

High – training can stop excessive barking

Mental stimulation needs level



12-16 years 

How Does the Pomeranian Interact with Family?

One of the social aspects of Pomeranian temperament that makes them so popular is that they are very affectionate and loyal. They want to be with their human families all the time, and this can be both good and bad. While Pomeranians don’t require a lot from their owners regarding food and exercise, they prefer to be the center of your world. 

The Pomeranian temperament mixes independent and loyal, but they love nothing more than sitting on your lap and being showered with love and affection. The good news is that they will give it right back, and nothing can brighten your day more than having those adorable eyes turned on you with adoration.

Pomeranians are very affectionate, and they bond most closely with one person in the family. They especially love to snuggle with their favorite person. Dwarf Spitzes are intelligent and test their families’ limits with their bossiness. Without firm treatment, they will run the household whenever possible. 

However, that is an innate pack tendency to aim for the alpha status, but deep down, they are as soft as marshmallows, craving the attention and love of their human families. They enjoy moving from one lap to the next, and it is up to their owners to learn how to convince them to come out to play. 

How Does the Pomeranian Interact with Other Dogs?

Pomeranians tend to do well with other dogs if properly socialized and introduced. With Poms, there will always be potential for resource guarding, meaning they may be possessive over food or toys, so supervision and feeding separately may be necessary for families with more than one dog. 

Dog owners should note that this possessive trait in Pomeranians risks the safety of young children who come near them while they eat. Play with larger breed dogs should be supervised to ensure it isn’t too rough as Poms may be injured if play is too rambunctious.

How are Pomeranians with Older People?

Pomeranians make excellent pets for older people and very busy people because they aren’t an overly dependent breed. They are also suitable for apartment dwellers or homes that don’t have a backyard. Because of their small size, they aren’t recommended for families with small children who accidentally injure them.

How are Pomeranians with Children?

Pomeranians tend to be very active and happy little dogs that enjoy playing and cuddling. The one exception to this is young children. Pomeranians are tiny, and their bones break easily because they are delicate and fragile. They are not the right choice for a family with young children who might handle the small Poms roughly.

Pomeranians can be defensive if they feel threatened, and they will growl and nip when they are frightened. For the safety of the dog and the children, consider another breed if you have small kids.

How are Pomeranians with Neighbors or Guests?

Pomeranian puppies must learn to distinguish between neighbors and strangers who might pose threats from a young age. It is essential to socialize your Pom with as many people as possible, and this will help them grow up to be confident friendly adult dogs. Enroll in a puppy socialization class if possible. 

Do not coddle your Pom or shield him from the world by carrying him in your purse. This will make him fearful of new situations. Instead, use treats to teach him that new people and places are fun and safe. This will help him develop that extroverted Pomeranian temperament that we know and love.

What are the Physical Traits of the Pomeranian?

Pomeranians used to be large, like their sled dog, Spitz ancestors, but they are now known for their short build. The average dog of this variety, whether male or female, measures 7 to 12 inches tall and weighs 3 to 7 lbs. While the male is a little larger, it is primarily due to muscle mass. It does, however, take a consistent and patient person to bring out the Dwarf Spitz’s best.

Their intelligence has made them one of the few toy breeds that compete and excel in agility competition. The active Pomeranian temperament makes this breed a great competitor within the world of canine sports. As with all intelligent dogs, you have to ensure that your cute little fluff-ball doesn’t outsmart you.

The Pomeranian’s physical traits are summarized in the table below: 


Trait information


Toy – Companion


3 to 7 pounds


7 to 12 Inches

Skull/ Head

Skull – closed, slightly round but not domed. Stop – well pronounced.

Head – in balance with the body, when viewed from above, broad at the back tapering to the nose


Dark, bright, medium-sized, and almond-shaped


Small, mounted high and carried erect


Rather short, straight, free of lippiness


Black pigment except self-colored in chocolate, beaver and blue




Average needs


12 to 16 years



Coat color

Black, white, orange, red, sable, black and tan, chocolate, cream.


Heavily plumed, set high and lies flat and straight on the back.


When viewed from the front are moderately spaced, straight and parallel to each other, set well behind the forechest.

How to Feed a Pomeranian?

Your dog’s adult size determines its dietary needs through all life stages. Thus, base your Pomeranian’s diet on a toy breed’s unique nutritional and digestive needs throughout its different life stages. Pomeranians fall in the toy breed class, and most dog food companies have breed-specific formulas for small, medium, large, giant, and even toy breeds. 

It is always a good idea to discuss your dog’s dietary needs with your vet to ensure you are prepared to deal with age-related issues as your Dwarf Spitz grows. A veterinarian can advise on diets, portion sizes, meal frequencies and all nutrition matters to ensure your furry friend lives a long life with optimal health. Clean, fresh water should be available at all times, and some of the essential nutrients are listed below:

  • Protein
  • Fatty acids
  • Carbohydrates
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins

Avoid feeding your Pom from the table; all it does is add weight; instead, follow the advice below to ensure your furry friend’s optimal health.

Despite the Dwarf Spitz’s pint size, it is an active, athletic breed that needs food containing animal proteins and carbohydrates for energy, vitamins and minerals for digestive and immune health, and omega fatty acids for coat and skin wellness. A dog of this size, activity level, and demeanor will thrive best on premium dry food because this food type contains balanced portions of the above-listed ingredients.

However, your Pomeranian’s portion depends on life stage, health, metabolism, activity level, and of course, the brand and formula of food it eats. Feed your Pomeranian a food formulated for a toy breed with recipes for puppies, adults and seniors, or look for a brand developed for all life stages.

The Pomeranian will require between ½ cup and ¾ cup of food per day, spreading the feeding times over 2 to 3 times per day. Because these dogs are so small, overfeeding is a common problem that leads to obesity and many other health problems associated with being overweight.

Feeding Pomeranians several meals instead of one meal per day can prevent life-threatening bloat. However, fresh drinking water must always be available for your little furry friend. When in doubt, consult your veterinarian. 

 An example of premium food specially formulated for Poms and its benefits are listed below:

The best dog food for Pomeranians is Royal Canin Breed Health Nutrition Pomeranian Adult Dry Dog Food.

This nutritious, high-quality food is specially made for your purebred Pomeranian. The small kibble size is perfect for your pup’s tiny teeth and helps reduce tartar buildup. A balanced blend of fiber and protein aids in healthy digestion, while crucial nutrients help support your Pom’s delicate joints, knees and bones. Plus, it’s made with EPA and DHA to help your fluffy friend maintain a beautiful, healthy coat.

Below is a list of the benefits offered by the Royal Canin Breed Health Nutrition Pomeranian Adult Dry Dog Food range.

  • Enriched with EPA and DHA for nourished skin and a healthy coat.
  • It helps support your pup’s delicate joints, knees and bone health
  • It contains a balanced blend of fiber and protein to promote healthy digestion and comfortable potty breaks.
  • Small kibble size is a perfect fit for your dog’s mouth while helping to reduce tartar.

When Pomeranians are healthy and active, every day is an adventure. That’s why Royal Canin Pomeranian Adult Dry Dog Food is crafted with everything dogs need to thrive, starting with real protein as the first ingredient.

How Much Should a Pomeranian Puppy Eat? 

The Pomeranian is a toy-sized breed whose puppies up to 6 pounds should get ⅓  to ½  a cup of food per day. It is essential not to feed puppies all their food at once, and they should have it spread over the day. When Dwarf Spitz puppies become three months old, owners can provide them with three meals per day until they reach six months, reducing the food intake to 2 meals per day. Only high-quality and branded puppy food is acceptable. Guidance for feeding puppies is listed below.

  • Pomeranian puppies need slow, sustained growth to help prevent orthopedic problems, such as hip dysplasia. Raise them on a diet designed for toy-breed puppies. Whatever diet you choose shouldn’t overemphasize protein, fat, and calorie levels.
  • Pomeranians should be fed according to a schedule, spreading meal times two or three times per day. Getting the puppy accustomed to meals at specific times is better than leaving food out to allow feeding throughout the day.
  • The exceptions are Pomeranians with medical conditions like hypoglycemia or low blood sugar because they need to nibble bits of food throughout the day.
  • Never feed your puppy from the table. It only encourages begging. Everyone in the family must follow this rule.

What are the Health Tests that a Pomeranian Should Take?

Pomeranian breeders should have the following health tests done:

DNA Tests covering 7 main categories

  • Musculoskeletal and Dental

  • Haemolymphatic

  • Skin and Immune

  • Urogenital

  • Metabolic and Endocrine

  • Ophthalmological

  • Neurological

Other tests and Xrays: Hip and Elbow Evaluation, Patella Check, General Health Check, including Heart, Vaccines, Fleas and Worms.

What are the common health problems of Pomeranians?

Pomeranians are widely recognized as a healthy, hardy breed. However, even healthy Dwarf Spitz should have regular veterinarian checkups. Owners should ensure the following list of health conditions are monitored throughout the dog’s life.

  • Tracheal collapse is a progressive respiratory condition that occurs when these tracheal rings of cartilage collapse. It can cause your dog to have breathing problems as the windpipe collapses.
  • Periodontal Disease in dogs is caused by the build-up of plaque and tartar on the teeth, leading to gum infections, bone loss, loss of teeth and other serious health problems.
  • Patellar luxation occurs when the dog patella (kneecap), which usually sits on the groove of the femur (thighbone), shifts out of alignment. When luxation of the patella occurs, your dog may experience intermittent hind limb “skipping,” lameness, or the limb locking up at an odd angle.
  • Deafness in dogs can either be a temporary, partial or total loss of hearing due to a wax build-up in the ear canals or permanent hearing loss due to a host of causes such as severe, untreated ear infections, congenital defects, old age and injuries.
  • Cryptorchidism is the medical term that refers to the failure of one or both testicles (testes) to descend into the scrotum. The testes develop near the kidneys within the abdomen and normally descend into the scrotum by two months. In certain dogs, it may occur later, but rarely after six months of age.
  • Hypothyroidism: Insufficient thyroid hormone production, causing hair loss, dry skin and coat, and susceptibility to other skin diseases in Pomeranians.
  • Various other eye conditions, including
    • Lens Luxation (dislocation) In patients suffering from lens luxation (dislocation), the lens shifts out of position and moves either into the front or into the back of the eye. This condition can lead to Glaucoma and blindness.
    • Corneal ulceration- Ulcers caused by eye laceration may result from blunt trauma, such as a dog rubbing its eye on the carpet.
    • Distichiasis, or the presence of extra eyelashes, in dogs is a condition where hairs grow in an unusual area on the eyelid. The hairs will generally grow out of the meibomian glands at the lid of the eyelid.
    • Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a progressive degenerative disease affecting the retina, leading to blindness.
    • Cataracts cause the eye(s) of the dog to have a cloudy appearance. Cataracts usually occur in old age and can be treated by surgically removing the cataract.

You can minimize serious health concerns in a Pomeranian by purchasing a Pom from a reputable breeder who engages in responsible breeding practices and screening for common diseases and conditions.

Are Pomeranians Hypoallergenic?

Unfortunately, these playful puppies don’t have the qualities to deem them hypoallergenic or suitable for those with allergies to dogs.

Pomeranians are not thought to be hypoallergenic dogs, and Poms are one of the better dog breeds for people who suffer from allergies. This is because they shed very little, and their coats do not produce dander, which can trigger an allergic reaction in some individuals.

What is the Exercise Need of a Pomeranian?

Tiny Pomeranians need indoor space to exercise, and their daily requirements for exercise may be fulfilled through indoor play and a short walk outside. Even with regular exercise, these dogs don’t do well outside for extended periods of high temperatures. 

If the dog’s tongue becomes bright red or they begin to pant a lot, it’s a good sign that they are nearing a state of heatstroke. They are equally sensitive to colder weather, so they need ample space to exercise indoors. When leashed for walks outdoors, a harness is recommended to prevent tracheal collapse caused by pulling at the collar.

What are the nutritional needs of Pomeranians?

The nutritional needs of a Pomeranian include high levels of specific nutrients. The essential nutrients for the Dwarf Spitz are listed below.

  • Protein: Pomeranians need natural animal protein, valuable for the amino acids essential for Pom’s health. Equally important is the fact that protein builds lean muscles and provides energy.
  • Fat: Animal protein provides adequate fat, an additional energy source that boosts the Pomeranian’s metabolism. However, there is a fine line between enough and too much. Excessive fat levels in the dog’s daily diet could result in weight gain and, ultimately, obesity. Most importantly, adults and senior Pomeranians need lower fat levels than puppies.
  • Carbohydrates: Although carbs are not essential nutrients, they are crucial energy sources. Giving the Pomeranian sufficient carbs will provide energy, encouraging the body’s protein absorption to build lean muscle. Beware, though, too much carbohydrate can lead to obesity.
  • DHA: DHA is one of the components of omega-3 fatty acids. It promotes proper eye and brain development in Pomeranian puppies, and DHA develops cognitive development in puppies and slows cognitive decline in older dogs. Furthermore, omega fatty acids benefit aging Dwarf Spitzes by treating chronic kidney disease and canine arthritis. Omega-3 oils improve the coat health of the Pomeranian.
  • Micronutrient: Taurine is one micronutrient that aids heart health, and other valuable micronutrients for promoting strong joints in Pomeranians are chondroitin and glucosamine.
  • Minerals: Beneficial minerals for a Pomeranian’s growth include a healthy balance of phosphorus and calcium. Pre- and probiotics and chelated minerals provide additional health to the diets of Dwarf Spitzes.

What is the Shedding Level of Pomeranians?

Even though their shed level is relatively low compared to other dogs, they typically blow out their coats during seasonal changes, from winter to summer months, making them less desirable for people with dog allergies.

Sometime around the four- to the six-month mark, Pomeranian puppies go through a phase Pom owners affectionately refer to as the ‘puppy uglies.’ Their fluffy puppy coat sheds drastically to make way for their adult double coat. When this happens, Poms are often left with a scraggly, patchy fur coat. No Pomeranian is immune, though some may have it easier than others.

Extra brushing and regular bathing during this time will help the process along. Poms may be more susceptible to cold temperatures, and a coat or sweater may be necessary to prevent a chill.

Coat color or markings may darken, lighten, or change entirely during this puppy shed. The color change may be barely noticeable, but more apparent changes are possible—such as brown fur turning to cream or parti coloring appearing. The ‘uglies’ phase usually lasts until one year of age, when the adult coat finishes growing in.

After one year of age, abnormal hair loss may be attributed to ‘alopecia x,’ a disorder that causes hair loss in Pomeranians and other breeds. This symmetrical pattern baldness is also called ‘black skin disease’ because the skin may change color. Treatment does not always reverse the hair loss attributed to the condition, but it is not harmful, and the hair loss is not contagious.

What is the Coat Grooming Frequency of Pomeranians?

The rough-coated Pomeranian sheds minimally but has slightly higher grooming needs. Its shaggier hair needs clipping by the owner or a professional groomer, and more frequent brushing is required. Their coats are dense and tightly formed, and twice-weekly deep combing is essential to prevent trapped allergens that could cause fungal or other infections on the skin.

Coat grooming is essential for various reasons, as listed below.

  • Grooming gives your dog a healthy look and promotes hygiene. 
  • Proper grooming lowers the risks of matting.
  • Your Pomeranian smells nice through grooming, thus raising the hygiene conditions.
  • Grooming promotes the growth and development of a lustrous and shiny coat that makes your dog attractive.
  • Grooming allows you to check for fleas and take early preventive and treatment measures.
  • Proper grooming lowers the risks of ear infections since you can check the ears and wipe them dry after grooming regularly.
  • While grooming, you can check for any skin problems and alert the vet before they worsen.
  • Grooming boosts the bond between you and your Pomeranian Dog.

To lower the grooming frequencies, you should keep your dog’s surroundings clean and the coat short. Your dog should be calm during grooming. Short walks before the grooming session will calm your Pom, thus ensuring they remain still during the grooming process.

You can also give your Dwarf Spitz their favorite treat to munch on while you groom them. Grooming must be enjoyable and a stress-free process for your Pomeranian.

What is the Drooling Level of Pomeranians?

The drooling level of Pomeranians is low, and they are not slobbery dogs at all; just a quick heads-up. Pomeranians tend to show their love by licking, aimed mainly at their primary pet parent. However, early training can discourage them from overwhelming you with doggie kisses if this is an issue.

However, drooling is a natural process, and if your canine companion drools more than usual, it might indicate a health problem to report to your vet. The primary triggers of drooling are listed below:

  • The thought of delicious meals like a favorite treat or meat
  • Mouth and throat problems like fractures in the mouth, throat, or esophagus.
  • Plaque build-up can also irritate the mouth and cause excessive saliva.
  • A foreign object stuck in the throat prevents swallowing, thus causing drooling. 
  • Growth in the mouth also stimulates drooling.
  • Stomach upsets.
  • Excessive heat, especially during summer
  • The main symptom of diseases like kidney disease, liver problems, seizures, botulism, and rabies is drooling.
  • Motion sickness and anxiety. Dogs who do not like traveling will get anxious whenever they board a car. Stress makes dogs pant and breathe with their mouths open, thus causing drooling.
  • Excitement and agitation make dogs drool.
  • Sexual excitement, like when a male Pom spots a female Dwarf Spitz in heat, causes drooling. Likewise, a female in her heat cycle might drool if she picks up the scent of a male.

What is the Coat Type of the Pomeranian?

Pomeranians have a distinctive coat. The Pom’s profuse double coat stands out from his body, and he has a luxurious ruff around his neck and chest, and their bodies have a thick double coat, made up of a  soft undercoat to keep them snuggly and warm in the winter months and a long outer coat, the part of their coat that you can touch, groom, and wash.

What is the Coat Lenght of the Pomeranian?  

The Pomeranian’s glory is his thick, stand-out, double coat with an undercoat of soft, thick, fluffy hair and a top coat of long, straight, shiny hair that’s harsh to the touch. The longer hair around the neck and chest forms a frill, enhancing the Pom’s proud appearance.

What are the Social Traits of the Pomeranian Breed?

The social traits of the Pomeranian are affection, playfulness, friendliness, and possessive nature. The Pomeranians are intelligent and learn fast, but they can be bored with long training sessions. Dwarf Spitzes are fun-loving and have the charm to lighten you up when you are not in a happy mood. 

Poms’ playfulness and desire to please make them fun to be with. You can enjoy their antics wherever you go as they are small and easy to carry around. Clowns used Pomeranians to entertain people, and they still possess the ability to make people laugh. Other social traits of Pomeranians include the following:

  • Elderly-friendly: Pomeranians love playing with the elderly. However, they are highly energetic and may exhaust the seniors if playtime is long. In addition, Dwarf Spitzes enjoy playing rough and can easily hurt the elderly hence constant supervision is vital.
  • Children-friendly: Pomeranians enjoy running around or chasing after children. However, Poms look like toys, and because they are fragile, younger children might easily hurt them as the kids may not know how to handle the Poms gently, and your Dwarf Spitz might bite to protect itself.
  • Family-friendly: Pomeranians are smart, curious, and energetic balls of fluff. They can be the perfect choice for a family pet that’s less intimidating than a large dog. This pampered Pom loves to be the center of attention. Thus, it will fit in well with families who can oblige.
  • Pet-friendly: Pomeranians can get along great with cats and other animals, especially if they’re raised with them. Protect them from bigger dogs. Poms don’t realize just how small they are, and they have no fear of challenging bigger dogs.
  • Cautious with strangers: Pomeranians tend to be suspicious of strangers. They will show their suspicion by barking whenever they see an unfamiliar person. Their strong bond with family makes them aloof towards strangers, but you can reduce this through training on proper socialization behavior. Taking your Dwarf Spitz with you whenever you visit other people’s houses also helps in lowering their aggression towards strangers. Your Pom will learn to interact with new people and become less suspicious of strangers. 
  • Cautious with new dogs:  Pomeranians often show aggressive behavior towards other animals. However, their aggression is seldom the reaction to feeling threatened but jealousy instead.

How Do Pomeranians Interact with Strangers?

Pomeranians are wary and standoffish when they encounter strangers. Dwarf Spitzes typically bark excessively upon noticing strangers, but if their owners invite those strangers into their homes, Poms would likely withdraw until they feel comfortable in the strangers’ presence. They would then approach the stranger and start smelling wherever it can reach to ensure all is okay. Poms are not likely to bite unless they feel threatened.

Is the Pomeranian Playful?

Pomeranians are very playful with older children, adults, and even senior citizens and make excellent family dogs. However, their size may lead smaller children to see them as more of a plaything than a living and breathing family member. Individuals with small children should either supervise the interactions closely or choose another breed.

Are Pomeranians Protective?

Yes, the Pomeranian is a dedicated companion who is always alert. Poms often bark when someone approaches the home, or other animals walk through the yard. They are not effective as guard dogs due to their tiny size, but they make excellent watchdogs.

It may seem crazy to think about a 5-pound bundle of fluff as a watchdog, but it’s true. The confidant Pomeranian temperament and their territorial tendencies mean they will always let you know when a stranger is up to no good.

These little tough guys must be socialized at a young age. Pomeranians need to be exposed to lots of people and unusual sights and loud sounds so that their naturally cautious nature does not turn into suspiciousness. A suspicious dog can lead to a defensive dog if not properly socialized.

What is the Adaptability Level of Pomeranians?

Pomeranians are highly adaptable. Even if they are relocated from a farm or a ranch to an apartment in the city, they will quickly adapt if the move does not separate them from their human families. 

Apartments are suitable accommodation for Poms because they can make their own playground indoors. If you take your Dwarf Spitz out for a couple of 30-minute walks per day, it would be sufficient to keep your furry friend stimulated, in shape, and happy. Part of the exercise time could be spent playing indoor games or taking the play to a nearby park.

What are the Personality Traits of Pomeranians?

Despite being only 7 to 12 inches tall, the Pomeranian is a very bold and brave little dog. It makes interactions with them a lot of fun but can also lead to “Small Dog Syndrome.” With small dogs, we tend to allow a lot of ill-mannered behavior that we would never allow in a larger dog.

This leads little dogs like Pomeranians to believe that they rule the roost and can get away with anything they want.

As a responsible Pom owner, you will want to establish rules and boundaries that will help avoid Small Dog Syndrome. Use treats to reward good behavior that you want to encourage. Use “time outs” to correct bad behavior you would like to extinguish.

The extroverted Pomeranian is intelligent and energetic. He loves meeting new people and gets along well with other animals, although he sometimes thinks he’s a lot bigger than he is. Don’t let him challenge bigger dogs in his mistaken belief that he’s their size or larger.

They are slightly more sensitive than other dog breeds, and soft punishment affects them emotionally. Pomeranians don’t tolerate irregular daily routines, noisy households, and frequent guest visits. They are receptive to their owner’s emotions and make excellent family companions.

Are Pomeranians Angry Dogs?

Without proper training, Pomeranians, especially the mini versions of the breed, may become aggressive. They distrust new people, and they quickly feel intimidated by animals and humans larger than them. While they may seem cute, this aggression can lead to biting.

Can Pomeranians be Dangerous?

No, Pomeranians are not dangerous, except maybe if small children are left with the Pom without supervision. Even grabbing a tiny hand full of Pom’s hair could lead to an aggressive response and even biting.

Do Pomeranians Ever Attack?

Brussels Dwarf Spitzins often display small-dog syndrome. They are not shy to show aggression toward other dogs, even several times their size. However, it would be mostly a show of teeth and lots of barking, but they are not likely to attack.

Can Pomeranians Kill Humans?

No, Pomeranians are not likely to kill humans; however, that does not mean they won’t try. One of their character traits is disregarding their dwarf-like size and challenging large dogs, so why not humans? 

Do Pomeranians cope with being left alone?

No Pomeranians do not cope with being left alone. Many Poms suffer from Separation Anxiety if they do not understand their role in the family. The best way to avoid anxiety-related behavior problems is by providing lots of physical exercise and setting yourself up as the clear pack leader. 

Can I leave my Pomeranian at home?

You can prevent separation anxiety by training your Pom from a young age to accept your absence. For example, start with very short training sessions. Give your Pomeranian an enrichment item like a stuffed Kong or a food puzzle. Leave the room for a few seconds. When you return, remove the coveted treat and put it away. Your Pom should only get its special treat when you leave the room. Pretty soon, your Pom will happily stay with other family members when their favorite human has to run an errand.

Can Pomeranians be left alone for 8 hours?

Pomeranians who learned to accept being alone at an early age will be less inclined to suffer separation anxiety when they are older. Dwarf Spitzes can learn to be alone for six to eight hours and enjoy their independence in doing so. 

However, dogs as small as Poms have small bladders and may need to go potty before their owners return. A dog walker’s services might be necessary if a doggy door is ruled out.

How to Train a Pomeranian?

While intelligent, the Pom is stubborn and manipulative. It has a mind of its own and isn’t afraid to use it. Positive reinforcement methods are ideal for this sensitive breed. They quickly pick up on basic training and are often unwilling to perform for you unless it is their idea. They can be dramatic when leash training, so start early. Dwarf Spitzes may be slow to housebreak like most small breeds because they can’t hold it as long as larger breeds can. Crate training may help with housetraining.

How Frequently does a Pomeranian Bark?

One of the most common behavior challenges is Pomeranian barking. Barking is usually an attention-seeking behavior, and Pomeranians bark to demand attention, food or treats from their owner. Instead of giving in, ignore your Pomeranian’s barking. Your Pom will learn that barking gets him nothing and that behavior will decrease over time.

It takes patience and consistency. If one person in the family gives in and gives the dog attention when barking, that will undo weeks of training. It will take time, but you can improve barking behavior.

However, Pomeranians are simply vocal dogs; let’s face it; barking is their only way of communication. Most dogs have different-sounding barks for different purposes. So if you cannot tolerate a little barking, the Pomeranian is probably not the breed for you.

Likewise, if you live in an apartment and your neighbors are sensitive to noise, a Pomeranian might not be the best choice for your lifestyle.

Below is a list of bark types that owners will learn to recognize. 

  • Pomeranians hate being left alone, and one way of coping with loneliness is barking. 
  • A lack of exercise and anxiety can also trigger barking.
  • Alarm barking is when your Pom is barking as a way of alerting you of approaching danger. Alarm barking can save you from danger; however, Poms may bark before ascertaining that there is a real danger.  
  • Another type of barking is demand barking, where a Pom feels entitled to something or your attention and would bark as a way of demanding their rights. This type can be lowered through proper training and ignoring the barking.
  • The Pomeranian uses arousal barking to show their frustrations.
  • Boredom barking signals that your Pomeranian is tired or bored due to being left alone or infrequent exercises. 
  • Frequent barking can be a nuisance to both the owner and neighbors. Some types of barking tend to be monotonous and continuous. 

You can train your Pom to stop barking by using positive and negative motivators.

  • Whenever they start barking, command them to be quiet and if they obey, reward them with their favorite treat or toy. If they disobey your command, you can withdraw some benefits like not giving them their best toy.
  • Engage your dog in their favorite activity or exercise. Tired Dwarf Spitzes might sleep while you are away.
  • Look for attractive toys that would keep your Pomeranian busy while you are away.
  • Continuous barking might call for a visit to the vet.

What is the need for Mental Stimulation of a Pomeranian?

The need for mental stimulation of a Pomeranian is essential as it lowers the risks of destructive behaviors resulting from boredom. Poms are smart and learn fast, and they need regular mental stimulation. The playful and intelligent nature of Poms further calls for frequent mental activity. There are different ways of mentally stimulating your Pom, and some of them are listed below.

  • Playing with interactive games or toys, including dog puzzles and canine board games.
  • Encourage sniffing during regular evening walks.
  • Provide healthy chews like dehydrated sweet potato strips. Chewing for more extended periods calms the brain, thus lowering stress levels.
  • Hide and seek games
  • Drop and fetch games
  • Regular walks

These mental stimulation techniques should start at an early stage. Pomeranians who are eight years and older tend to have problems with their thinking ability. The primary signs of mental disorientation are listed below.

  • Excessive anxiety.
  • Frequent accidents.
  • Failure to recall previously learned commands.
  • Changes in sleep and wake patterns.
  • Low interest in physical activities.
  • Poor social skills.

What are the Breed Standards of Pomeranian?

The Pomeranian is a compact yet sturdy dog. Its body is as long as tall, offering a square appearance. The Pomeranian is small-boned and well-balanced. Small ears are set high and erect, and dark eyes are balanced and display an alert and intelligent expression. A short, fox-like muzzle should show a scissor bite. 

A thick, textured overcoat covers the soft, full undercoat. A ruff is visible on the face. Forelegs are feathered, and a skirt is present at the rear. The plumed tail should be high-set and rest across the back. All colors are allowed. Movement should be brisk and efficient, with the head carried proudly. 

Some of the breed standards of Pomeranians are given in the table below.

Breed Standards 

Pomeranian Breed Information 


Any color is allowed.


Pomeranians are very small, which classifies them as a Toy breed

Eye Color 

The color of the Pomeranians’ eyes is dark.

Average Weight 

Pomeranian Dogs weigh between 7 and 12 pounds 

Average Height

Pomeranian Dogs’ height ranges between 7 and 8 inches

Average lifespan 

Pomeranian Dogs have a lifespan of 13-15 years. 

What is the General Information about Pomeranian?

The Pomeranian, or the Dwarf Spitz, is a toy dog, only weighing about 7 lbs. at its heaviest. Their family lineage doesn’t follow that of terriers or other small breeds, coming from sled dogs instead. Pomeranians are closely linked to American Eskimo Dogs, and despite their small size,  their genetic line partially comes from large sled dogs like the Husky, Alaskan Malamute, Siberian Huskies, Norwegian Elkhounds, and Samoyeds. 

The first Pomeranians weighed between 20 to 30 pounds as adults. However, they were scaled down as Queen Victoria of England wanted to turn these big beauties into cute little lap dogs. She wanted to make them smaller as a lapdog. The miniature variation of this breed emerged at the start of the 1990s, though it is not recognized by the AKC as an official breed.

Pomeranians could face risks that few other breeds face. Because they are so small, Poms can be perceived as prey by owls, eagles, hawks, coyotes, and other wild animals. Never leave them outside unattended, and be watchful if there are predatory birds in your location. 

If this is the case, stay close to your Pom to discourage birds from trying to carry them off. It is not only predatory birds and animals to look out for because their cuteness makes them targets of dognappers who steal pretty Poms for resale.

Something else you may not expect is the possibility of the Dwarf Spitz losing hair and developing bald spots when they get old, and such hair loss is permanent. They will not regrow their magnificent coats.

Where to Buy or Adopt a Pomeranian?

A purebred Pomeranian’s price can be as low as $500 and as high as $1,500. Lower prices are generally available within shelters and rescues, but puppies can cost as much as $4,000 from top breeders. Black Pomeranians are specially bred and are the most expensive variety.

If you want to bring a Pomeranian home, you should not rush. The only “purebreds” available upon request are not the real thing and are likely bred on puppy farms. The more realistic way is to put your name on a waiting list, and while you’re waiting, learn as much as you can about this giant dog in the cutest little dog body.

Finding a reputable breeder or rescue facility is crucial. A good breeder will match you with the right puppy and will, without question, have done all the health certifications necessary to screen out health problems as much as possible. They are more interested in placing pups in suitable homes than making big bucks. 

Be wary of breeders who only tell you the good things about the breed or make irrational promises to promote the dogs. Be especially suspicious when you are offered a two-for-the-price-of-one deal. 

Pomeranian puppies are adorable, and it’s one of the reasons they are so popular. Cute puppies sell, and that makes the Pom a favorite of puppy mills and greedy, irresponsible breeders. Do your homework before buying one of these little dogs, and you’ll be well rewarded with a wonderful companion dog.

The best way to ensure you get a healthy Pomeranian puppy from a breeder or a rescue organization is to reach out to the registered organizations for the specific breed, if available. Although this breed is reasonably rare, the Pomeranian is recognized by the AKC, UKC and FIC, listed below, along with other registered kennel clubs that might put potential Pom owners in touch with reputable breeders 

  • Fédération Cynologique Internationale (International)
  • United Kennel Club (International)
  • The Kennel Club (United Kingdom)
  • American Kennel Club
  • American Pomeranian Association
  • American Pomeranian Club, Inc.
  • Europetnet
  • Canadian Kennel Club
  • Continental Kennel Club
  • United All Breed Registry
  • International Canine Association

If you manage to track down Pomeranian breeders, make sure you go to the facility and insist on meeting both the puppies’ parents so that you can get a feel for their temperament. Pomeranian puppies are often peppy and playful—all should have cheery expressions and kind eyes.

It might take some time to find a legitimate breeder, and travel may very well be in the cards. Steer clear of backyard breeding by avoiding sales sites and ad pages. When you select a breeder, make sure they have proof of successful, healthy litters with any documentation necessary.

You might find a Pomeranian puppy or a rescued adult to adopt or buy from abroad, but not all countries allow importing adopted dogs. Those whose countries will enable the importation of Pomeranians may find the logistics challenging. 

Procedures include obtaining certification from a vet to prove the Pomeranian is fully vaccinated and providing all the additional required veterinary documents before the travel. Furthermore, your country must approve the veterinarian to authorize the importation, and it will be your responsibility to ensure you use the services of a certified vet.

What are the Rescue Clubs for Pomeranians?

There are millions of homeless dogs worldwide; many are purebreds needing homes. Adopting a Pomeranian can be life-changing, not only for the dog but also for the adopter. If you prefer adoption over purchasing a pup from a breeder, then your first stop should be the National Pomeranian Rescue website. A Pomeranian rescue group is an excellent idea if you want to adopt an older dog or even a Pomeranian mix.

Pomeranian mixes may be available for adoption in shelters and rescues, but small dogs such as mixed breed Poms are often adopted quickly. If you want to adopt an AKC registered or a mixed breed Pomeranian, the best first step is to contact shelters and breed-specific rescues to let them know you’re interested.

Pomeranian mixes may include Beagle, Boston Terrier, Chihuahua, and terrier and spaniel types. Pomeranian mixes adopted from a shelter may share physical characteristics of the breed, but their temperament may not match the breed standard. Shelters and rescues attempt to determine each dog’s personality through a series of evaluations; even if the dog’s temperament does not follow the breed standard, you can get the dog that suits your home. 

The adoption fee for a Pom from a rescue group or animal shelter will probably be between $75 and $200. Most dogs from rescue groups and shelters will be vaccinated, microchipped, spayed/neutered and vetted before adoption

You can also reach out to your local rescue organization or animal shelter and ask if they have any Pomeranians or related mixes available for adoption. If not, you can always put your name on a list so that when one comes in, you’re the first one they call.

Below is a list of registered rescue centers and kennel clubs to reach out to for guidance.

  • Canada Guide To Dogs (National Pomeranian Rescue, Inc.)
  • Canada Pomeranian Dog Rescue Group
  • Pomeranian RescueMe Germany
  • EuroBreeder.com
  • American Pomeranian Rescue Alliance
  • New England Pomeranian Rescue, CT
  • Northwater Pom Haven, NY
  • NW Pomeranian Rescue, Portland OR
  • Northwater Rescue, Norwood, NY
  • Ponderosa Pomeranian Rescue

Facebook is another resource for pet adoption. You can search for Pomeranian rescue groups in your region.

You can also search for adoptable Pomeranians online through reliable websites such as

  • Petfinder.com
  • Adoptapet.com
  • Getyourpet.com

What is the History of the Pomeranian?

The diminutive Pomeranian likely descended from the Spitz family of dogs, considered the oldest dog type and closely related to the wolf. The name comes from the Baltic region, formerly called ‘Pomerania,’ where the smaller size is said to have developed. The dogs became known as Zwergspitz, or Dwarf-Spitz, in Germany. Though there isn’t much documentation available, the breed was likely to pull sleds and herd sheep.

Famous influences and owners of Pomeranians through the Centuries

Pomeranians had people talking as far back as the 18th Century. James Boswell mentioned Pomeranians in a diary entry from 1764. Queen Charlotte of the British Royal Family kept two Poms in England in the 1760s. 

The breed gained fame when Queen Victoria, the queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1837–1901), owned four Pomeranians, the smallest of which weighed 12 pounds. She established her own kennel and her animals competed as show dogs. Though most Pomeranians were still weighing in at around 20 pounds, her little 12-pound Pom furthered the popularity of small Pomeranians, and breeders began developing smaller Poms, also called Dwarf Spitzes, to meet the demand. The AKC recognized the Pomeranian in 1888. 

Other well-known Pomeranians and owners are listed below.

  • Two of the three dogs who survived the sinking of the Titanic in 1912 were Pomeranians.
  • Joséphine de Beauharnais, the wife of Napoleon I of France owned a Pomeranian.
  • Mozart, who dedicated an aria to his pet Pom Pimperl
  • Sir Isaac Newton’s Pomeranian Diamond destroyed some of Newton’s research

What is the Average Maintenance Cost for Pomeranians?

The prices of Pomeranians range between $800 and $5,000. The cost of a puppy from a registered breeder could vary, depending on the breeder you select, the location, the sex of the puppy, and, of course, the demand for the breed at the time. 

The bloodline of the puppy and its parents could also affect the price. You will be hard-pressed to find this breed in a shelter, but if you do, the price could be $100 to $400, based on the cost of care provided while keeping the Pomeranian and extras like vaccinations and sterilizations.

It is always best to consider annual expenses related to maintaining your Pomeranian and its wellbeing before making the purchase. The first year will be the most expensive, as puppies require extra vet care and more one-time purchases like microchips, spaying or neutering, etc. You can expect to spend about $4,500 for your dog’s first year. After that, the price will go down to about $1,300 a year.  

The typical annual costs of having a toy-sized canine such as a Pomeranian will not necessarily be much less than a larger dog. In fact, medical expenses throughout the Dwarf Spitzes life could be more than average because the Pomeranian breed is predisposed to many health problems. 

Except for the lower food volumes, vaccinations, microchips and other expenses are the same, regardless of the dog’s size. Food and medical only, excluding toys, food and water bowls, cages, doggy blankets, beds, etc., could cost an average of $650. The most regular annual expenses for dogs similar to the Pomeranian are listed below.

  • Food items
  • Veterinary care
  • Vaccinations
  • Preventive medicine
  • Toys
  • Pet insurance
  • Pet Supplies

Other potential expenses include training, socializing, doggy daycare, dog sitters, dog walkers, etc. Grooming would likely affect the maintenance costs of Pomeranians because they need professional grooming about once per month to trim and bathe the Pom.

How to Name a Pomeranian?

Choosing a name for your Pomeranian involves essential building blocks, including the significance of the sound. The Pom’s name will mean something to the humans in the dog’s life, but for your canine companion, only the sound matters. Pomeranians respond best to two-syllable names that are not short enough to be confused with single-syllable command words like “sit,” stay,” “come,” and “down.” However, the names should not be long enough to become puzzling.

It is always a good idea not to rush into choosing a name. Spend a week or so with your new Pom pup, and its character traits might be all the inspiration you need. Call out any name-ideas, using different tones and sounds for the two syllables, and watch your puppy’s reaction to the sound. Remember, you must compose a sound that your Pom will recognize from a distance, among many other sounds. 

Choose a name that could sound different in regular interaction and yelling or calling your Pomeranian. Below is a list of suggestions of names inspired by your Pom’s ancestors and famous owners. 

Pomeranian Breed Names

Inspired by well-known Pomeranians and their owners

Pomeranian Boy Names

Pomeranian Girl Names


Or Newton

Sir Isaac Newton’s Pomeranian Diamond destroyed some of Newton’s research


Or Vicky

British Queen Victoria first ventured in breeding small Pomeranians.


Diamond was the Pet Pom of Sir Isaac Newton’s that destroyed some of his owner’s research


Or Richie

Nicole Richie, a more recent famous owner of a Pomeranian


Or Pimperl

Mozart, who composed an aria dedicated to his pet Pom Pimperl


Or Ozzie

Sharon Osborne, a more recent famous owner of a Pomeranian


Social media Pomeranian star with over 9 million followers on Instagram alone.


Or Jozy

Joséphine de Beauharnais, the wife of Napoleon I of France owned a Pomeranian


Two of the three dogs that survived the 1912 Titanic catastrophe were Poms.


Or Margie

Margaret Bechstein Hays, took her Pom, Lady, wrapped in a blanket, aboard Lifeboat 7 when the Titanic sunk in 1912.

Analysis of 14,000 Pomeranian owner responders to a poll about the differences between the males and females of the breed showed. 

If you’re looking for a calm, independent pet that is easy to take care of, getting a female Pomeranian would probably suit your needs best.

On the other hand, if you are interested in a dog who will act like a puppy, likes playing fetch all day long but can also easily entertain themselves by playing with toys, then go for the male Pomeranian.

What are the Different Types of Pomeranians?

According to the American Kennel Club (AKC), there are no different sizes or types of Pomeranians. Only the standard Pomeranian is accepted as a pure breed. A “throwback” Pomeranian is a larger dog, and it’s often a mixed breed. Different types of Pomeranian mixes are also gaining popularity, especially in the era of designer dog breeds. Below is a list of Toy-size Pomeranian varieties:  

  • Standard Pomeranian
  • Fox-Face Pomeranian
  • Teddy-Bear Pomeranian
  • Baby-Doll Pomeranian

Pomeranian Mixes:

  • Pomchi (Pomeranian x Chihuahua)
  • Pomapoo (Pomeranian x Poodle)
  • Bichonaranian (Pomeranian x Bichon Frise)

What Dog Breeds are Similar to the Pomeranian?

Pomeranians may not be too difficult to find, but purebreds are expensive and involve long waiting lists. Finding a Dwarf Spitz at a rescue center might be equally challenging because they are so popular. However, below is a list of similar breeds that might be a good match for your family.

  • Siberian Husky: Though the Siberian Husky is a much larger dog, it comes from the same genetic line as the Pomeranian. Huskies have a thick coat, but they tolerate cold weather much easier. more about Siberian Husky social life care & diet information.
  • American Eskimo Dog: The American Eskimo Dog has a fluffy coat as well, though it is primarily only found in white. These dogs shed heavily. more about American Eskimo Dog Breed social life care & diet information.
  • Keeshond: Keeshonds are incredibly social, unlike Pomeranians. Though the Pomeranian is protective, the Keeshond is a bit more easygoing. more about Keeshond Dog Breed social life care & diet information.

Sarah Brady

Sarah Brady is an animal lover and the proud dog-mom of a Golden Retriever named Brody and an Italian Greyhound named Jessup. Unfortunately, Jessup developed serious allergies to many different types of dog foods and ingredients when she was just a puppy. Meanwhile, Brody could eat seemingly anything and carry on as healthy as could be. Sarah spent hours of time researching and testing different foods and brands before finding something that worked for little Jessup. She wants Dog Food Care to simplify this experience for future dog-parents who face food allergy or tolerance issues of their own.